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Most Lucrative Agriculture Business you can Start-Up with Small Capital

Nigeria economic recovery programs have necessitated a radical shift from total dependence on government for job/oil boom to self-employment. One of the attractive areas for self-employment is agriculture. Agriculture is the science, art or occupation concerned with cultivating land, growing crops, breeding and raising livestock; and farming.

Most Lucrative Agriculture Business In Nigeria

Do you know that Agriculture businesses are the most lucrative in the entire world?  Apart from the low-cost of start up and running business under this sector, it usually turns out huge profit of up to 100%. One can start Agriculture business with little or no training. You did not need a special degree though you may need to spend some time learning about the intricacies involved just as in other matters. With the increase in unemployment, young people are now embracing agriculture which is erstwhile considered a dirty business reserved only for the poor. This article highlights some lucrative agricultural business in that even young people can go into to generate income within a very short period.

 Most Lucrative Agricultural Business with Small Capital Start-up

There are lots of lucrative agricultural business but in this article, we shall examine the following:

 SNAIL FARMING (Heliculture)

What is snail? Snail is a land livestock popularly known as congomeat; Also as Ejuna in the Eastern part of Nigeria in West Africa. There are many species of snail but we are going to look at the species that are most suitable for farming.

TYPES OF SNAIL 

  • Garden Snail 
  • Burgundy Snail
  • Decollate Snail 
  • Neverita didyma
  • Monachoides Vicinus

It is the family of Achatinoidea but the ones known as Achatina achatina (giant West African snail) and Achachatina marginata is the most desirable types for farming. It is also known as giant Ghana African snail, giant tiger land snail, and gigantocochlea. Although, all snails in this family may be profitable for breeding but the aforementioned two can be found in Nigeria and Africa at large. You must consider accessibility advantage. Achatina achatina are the largest land snails in the world and are widely sought after species, due to their sizes. They are more difficult to breed than other African snails but have longer life span up to 10 years. Snail farming means to rear snail in a secluded place in small or large scale.

Snail farming is one of the most neglected but yet one of the profitable livestock farm business. It provides one of the finest opportunities to make good money within a very short time. This farm is yet to be exploited due to lack of awareness. Virtually every part of snail is of vital use, both in food, pharmaceutical industries, fishery and in cosmetology. You can keep your present job and still run it on a part time basis.

 REPRODUCTION

Sexual maturity in snail is attained after six months and snails can live as long as 5-10 years. Snail is a hermaphrodite; containing both male and female sex organs. Each snail has two sets of sex organs; one with a penis testes and sperm and the other with ovaries eggs and oviduct and a punch or receptacle for staring sperm of another snail. However, self-fertilization is not common.  Snails copulate in pairs. Snails lay two to three weeks after mating and their reproduction is very rapid.

ACHATINA (achatina)

Achatina is highly prolific being able to lay between 100 to 400 eggs in a single batch of 2-3 per year. It is now possible to produce 1,000,000 snails worth more than N5million twice a year.

During favorable condition, a single snail is capable of laying up to three batches of eggs in one year. Incubation period last between 15 to 30 days depending on the prevailing weather condition and environmental factors. Hatching takes about 12-30 days and the young ones that emerge are tiny with transparent shells. Snail farming is indeed a gem in the livestock business; take advantage of this opportunity and be among the forerunners in this unbelievable venture.

Due to its nutritional value, snail has become a very good delicacy. Snail meat is very rich in calcium, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium and vitamins. It is popular among weight watchers because it is extremely low in calories and fat. Snail meat is beneficial to people suffering from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and people trying to recover from injury. Snail farming is not capital and management intensive. The facts are readily available and you can even produce it yourself as they feed on waste from farm produce.

ENVIRONMENT/SOIL/LOCATION

Snails are not reared on concrete floor. The floor of snailery must be made up of balanced soil. It must be protected from the wind by planting either banana or plantain around the farm. The best soil is sandy-loamy soil that has low water retention, avoid using clay because the place does not have to be waterlogged, acidic soil is equally not advisable. Our climate is one of the best in snail breeding. Use barbed wire fence around the pen to protect them from predators and pests. Snail are known to escape from enclosures that are not properly protected or covered. It therefore becomes necessary that snail houses should be protected to prevent the snail from escaping and free from predator. Protect them from pests like ants, termites and bigger predators like snakes and rats. For small scale, a patch of fence protected ground and shelter from wind or covered box could be made.

GETTING THE SNAIL

The best place to source for your initial stock is in the bushes. Snails gotten directly from their natural habitat are in the best condition because they have not been exposed to sunlight which would dehydrate them. Alternatively, buy the snail eggs from the market and cover them up with a plastic or with a wet sand in it and leave them to hatch into baby snail. This takes up to 21-28days. Another simple technique is to clear a little portion in a bush during rainy season and sprinkle fruit like pineapple, paw-paw and banana by 5 o’clock in the evening, then go back at about 7 or 8 pm; you will get snail suitable for rearing. Repeat the process till you get enough. You can also buy from people who have expertise in breeding them at this stage. They are of different species but Achatina is the most recommended because of its high reproductive capacities. It can lay up to 500 eggs at once and lays 3 times a year.

 NURSERY

Nursery is a structure specifically designed for raising snails in their juvenile stage to allow optimum growth and to provide a safe environment for the young snails when they are most vulnerable. In commercial snail production, after few weeks, the young snails are separated and kept in what is known as fattening boxes where they are adequately fed to encourage maximum growth. The floor of nursery is soil based before the introduction of the juvenile snails. The treatment involves keeping the soil moist. This treatment helps the soil structure resist washing which allows regular cleaning without destroying the crumb structure of the soil; which is beneficial for egg laying. Earth worms are also introduced into the soil of the nursery area to assist aeration and drainage of the soil. The young snails are kept in the nursery for about 6 weeks after which they are moved to a separate pen alongside others of the same size and age for optimum growth. The young snails may eat up the shells of their eggs which gives them the much needed calcium for building their own shell, after which they may also begin to eat the unmatched eggs.

FEEDING

Feed the snails with damaged fruits and leaves like paw-paw, okra, cassava, cabbage, lettuce leaves and so on. You need not to buy them most times, go to where these items are sold and they would be glad to have regular waste bin without stress. Adequate calcium is the best constituents of its shell (up to 98%). A common way to introduce this calcium is to add ground limestone. Calcium may also be set out in a feeding dish so the snails can eat it at will.

HARVESTING

Snails have no stipulated period to harvest. It maturity is checked by the look of the brim. When they are matured enough, the brim should be thicker and harder than other parts of the shell.

START-UP CAPITAL

Snail farming has different funding requirement at various stages of expansion. Snail farming in Nigeria requires small capital and the running cost is very low, hence their feeds are locally sourced. It requires less capital investment of about N100,000 while much profit is being generated in a considerable short period. It has lower risk compared to other livestock farming. Snail is an export commodity; which has value next to gold in oversea countries. It is a foreign exchange income earner of these days. Therefore, there is generic method for calculating the startup expenses. Some expenses can be recurring like that of utility and feeds.

CHALLENGES OF SNAIL FARMING

The challenge in snail rearing is the issue of pests such as; ants, termites, snakes and so on. But the solution is to properly fumigate the environment, fence and top cover the wire mesh. They rarely fall sick. Finally, the produce (snail) is ready for sale after three months if well fed.

 GRASS CUTTER FRAMING

Grass cutter (thryonomys Swinderinus) is a bush rat known as marsh cane-rat. They live in the bush but can be reared in colonies in livestock farming. Grass cutter is extremely suitable for commercial rearing. The main reasons grass cutters are now preferred by some farmers for rearing purpose is because they are easy to house, you don’t buy the type of food given to fish, poultry or pig farming. Research has shown that the meat is medicinal and can be helpful for the control of high blood pressure and also nourishing. It is a profitable venture that will stimulate fast income without having to go to bed with one eye opened like the poultry business. Even with N200,000 you will be able to start. The good thing is that the female grass cutter carries pregnancy for 140-150 days and one female grass cutter can give 5 to 8 litters (young ones) at once. 4 female means at least 5 litters each which gives up to 20 litters. They start giving birth at 8 months when you have purchased the breeding stock at 4 months.

 GETTING STARTED

COLONY

They do not sleep where they eat. This factor must be considered when providing their cage or house. There should be a different sleeping, dinning and playing place, making it three apartments. They are sensitive to good environment. The dimension of the cage should be 18cm in length and 60cm in width and 45cm in height. Build the cage separate for each colony. The production building must be designed to protect the animals from excess temperature and humidity. Their biggest enemies are snakes, solider ants and thieves. To protect them from soldier ants, pour engine oil around their houses at night especially during rainy season. The floor should be over laid with grass to protect their legs from harm while playing.

 BREEDING

Each colony must have a very healthy male grass cutter. Because a healthy male grass cutter has a great stock exchange. While you are selecting the male, it is important that you pay attention to the weight gain. Both the male and female must be carefully selected for breeding.

FEEDING

Grass cutters are herbivorous animal basically sourcing their food from the bush and that’s why they are more comfortable in the bush where their food can easily be found. They love sugar cane, elephant grass, guinea grass, root of coconut palms, sweet potatoes, rice, maize, groundnuts, half ripe plantain, paw- paw, pineapple, palm wine etc. but most farmers use sugar cane mainly for their feeding. The male can also be fattened with either broiler’s starters or finishers feed to help them gain weight within a short period of time. In fact, they feed like human beings but they eat raw food. Grass cutters do not like cold environment. Environment suitable for human beings is suitable for them too.

WEANING TIME:

The kids can be weaned and separated from the mother between 4 to 8 months and they mate between the age of 7-8 months.

THE MARKET VALUE

Grass cutter or bush meat is the most desirable in the market. Big restaurants use it to prepare delicacies that is costly. However, a fully matured grass cutter has been found to be not less than N4,500 naira in the market.

 QUAIL FARMING

Quail is a collective name for mid- sized birds. They have different species and provides a healthy low fat white meat. Quail farming is another profitable livestock farming business in agricultural sector. The greater part of the profit in this venture comes from the eggs. It has high demand and can be sold as cheap as N20 each. The egg, though small in nature is more nutritional than the chicken eggs and many practitioners recommend it for treatment of high blood pressure, Asthma anemia, gastric ulcer, liver problem etc. Fertilization can take place in ratio 1 male to 5 females. It has low cost of investment and low labour cost when compared to chicken rearing. Mature chicken daily consumes an average of 150 grams of feed along regular drugs administration but quail only consumes 20-25 grams feeds daily with little or no drugs.

Quail takes about 5-6 weeks to mature to point of lay while chicken takes 20-24 weeks. Startup capital of N200,000 can earn N100,000 monthly. Mature female quail for rearing was sold for N500 each and N300 each if you are to buy 250 mature female quail and 50 mature male quail, it will amount N125,000 and N15,000 respectively. These are the major expenses to cure if the housing is ready, other things like feeds, feeders and drinkers are minor and cheap to overcome. 250 mature female quail can lay 225 eggs daily i.e. 6750 eggs monthly, at N20 each gives N135,000 from egg alone and they lay eggs for a minimum of 18 months.

Finally, secures the cage from cats, snakes and rats while it should also be well ventilated. Dirty environment reduces egg production or cause disease outbreak. Clean it regularly and always make water available, they drink a lot of water.

 PIG FARMING          

Pig is any of the animals in the genusus, within the sundae family of even-toed ungulates. It belongs to the family of Eurasians in African continent. Pig farming is raising and breeding of domestic pigs. It is a branch of animal husbandry. A normal pig will have a big head with long snout this snout is what pig use to dig into the soil in search of food.

Pigs cannot be reared everywhere due to belief of some people for instance pig farming is a taboo is some Northern part of Nigeria because of the religious belief of such areas. There are numerous species of pigs. The young pig known as piglets. A full grown pig is sold for N30,000. Think of growing just one hundred pigs in a year which will fetches you about N3,000,000 Nigeria currency.

 STARTING PIG FARMING

To start pig farming, here is a summary of how to handle the project but still require some practical training.

  • Secure a breeding ground – for good development, pig needs space for adequate feeding pattern and growth. Depending on how you plan to feed your pigs, a plot of land will be good for small scale while you acquire a wider space as you expand. The bigger the breeding ground, the better because it is good to raise pig in pasture by leaving them occasionally to move around in the field when they can find plant to eat and that can only be achieved when you have enough pasture land, but more precaution should be taken as they mature so they do not wonder away.
  • Pen – Construct a pen in a square form to give you the best in your pig management. Concrete pen may be preferable depending on the texture of the soil in your area, as the concrete will alleviate the problem of mud footing that can be caused by the dry or wet floor. It has its adverse effect. It can hold heat during hot weather periods and could result in joint injuries and illness. Try to make your pen as big as possible for expansion and to avoid reconstruction in a short period of time the pen should be divided into four areas for feeding, sleeping, defecating and a bigger space for running around. They love to sleep near each other.
  • Getting the piglets – Consider the health condition of the piglets you want to buy, if possible, the history about the parent pig to determine the number of young pigs they can bear in their life time and how long the specie can live. Note that you will be determined if they have been given appropriate vaccines.
  • Feeding-the quantity of feed and the number of times to feed pigs depends on the species, age, and how much exercise they get due to space. Pigs are expected to eat 1116 (about 4kg) of pig pellets per day. Then after 4 months, 4116 (about 18kg) a day, there should be more lysine amino acids to feed young pigs so that they can grow more muscle tissue.

Note – too much lysine in the diet can be detrimental to growth in female pigs.

Pigs can also be fed with grass, damaged fruits vegetables and other human food. Sludge from vegetable oil (soy) in particular is very nourishing to the piglets.

  • Diseases and sickness: You may not discover this aspect on time in pigs expect you pay attention. It will be best you have a veterinary doctor who does know the symptom of their sickness. Their services are very important because, you will also need to vaccinate them from time to time.

SOME TERMINOLOGIES IN PIGGERY

  • Piglets/shoal – young or baby pigs
  • Gilts – young female pig not yet matured or furrowed.
  • Boar or hog – male pig of breeding age.
  • Barrow castrated – male pig before puberty.
  • Stag – male castrated pig.
  • Sow – breeding female.
  • Pork – the
  • Herd – a group of pigs.
  • Furrowing – when pigs are giving birth
  • Sty – a small pig pen.
  • Pig shed – a larger pig pen.
  • Hog/swine – the whole specie pig.

CASSAVA PROCESSING BUSINESS

Cassava is a woody shrub with an edible root. It was introduced in Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in 16th century. It has become a major staple in the world; West Africa in particular. Cassava roots are a good source of energy while the leaves provide protein, vitamins, and minerals. Lots of edible items are manufactured from cassava such as flour, Garri, starch etc.

HOW TO MAKE GARRI, FROM CASSAVA

According to integrated cassava project, Garri is creamy white, granular flour with a slightly sour taste made from fermented, gelatinized fresh cassava. Garri is widely known in Nigeria and other West African countries. It is commonly consumed either being soaked in cold water with sugar, coconut, roasted groundnut, dried fish or boiled cow peal as compliments or as a paste made with hot water and eaten with vegetable source. When properly stored, it has a shelf of six months or more. The overall potential of agro-processing is huge. It can reduce wastage, enhance food security, improve livelihood for low income groups and empower women.

The production of garri in Nigeria is dominated by women. Garri constitute a daily meal of about 150 million people worldwide. It is a popular West African food.

TYPES OF GARRI IN NIGERIA

  • There are different types of garri depending on how it is processed. It is in grain sizes and the region of African where it is produced, it is classified into:
  • Extra fine garri This is where more than 80% of the grain passes through the sieve of less than 350 micro meter aperture.
  • Fine garri grain Here more than 80% of the grain passes through a sieve of 1400 micro meter or less than 20% of weight passes through a sieve of 1000 micro meter.
  • Extra coarse grain garri In this type, not less than 20% of grain is retained on a sieve of 1400 micro meter aperture.
  • Garri can be classified based on fermentation length days and extend as well as whether palm oil is added to make it yellow in color or not.
  • Red garri This is the type of garri commonly found in Mid-Western part of Nigeria. It is also called Bendel garri. It is made exactly the way described above both for the addition of red palm oil after grinding the cassava and the garri is allowed to ferment for 2 to 3 days also. Adding palm oil to garri further helps to reduce the cyanide content and gives it a unique flavor.
  • White garri – same above. Left to ferments for 2 to 3 days as well, but red oil is not added during processing.
  • Igebu garri – this is made same way too but allowed to ferment for 7 days. No palm oil is added. It is also fried to became much crisped. It has characteristics of very sharp tastes and loss starch. Many people from the Western part of Nigeria love this and find it great for soaking.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

  1. Weighing balance
  2. Washing machine
  3. Presser
  4. Grater
  5. Granulator
  6. Sieves
  7. Fryer/Rotary drier
  8. Hammer milling machine
  9. Sealer

PROCEDURE

In Africa, garri is traditionally made at home. It is increasingly becoming common to produce garri in commercial quantities using mechanized means. The tubers are harvested, peeled by removing the covering and the white pulp is grinded in a garri grinding machine. Before the advent of machines, the cassava is hand grinded. The grinded produce is then put into a jute sac and the sac is tied. Traditionally, this left to ferment for 3-7 days depending on the type of garri being made, this step is very important as the fermentation process helps to reduce and detoxify the high cyanide content of cassava. The garri filled sacs are stacked on each other and a wooden board placed below and above the sacs. The wooden boards are tied together with the sacs full of the grinded cassava in between. Tension is created by tightening the rope and thus allowing water to run out of the grinded cassava being proceeded.

Usually, in 3 days the grinded cassava would have lost quite some water and become reasonably dried. This step is also being by-passed with the use of machines that compresses and squeeze water out of the grinded cassava. The water is very rich in starch; collected into a

basin and let to sediment. The sediment raw starch is collected and molded to dry as a bye product to other products.

PACKAGE AND STORAGE

The product is hygroscopic and it absorbs moisture from air, and should be packed in air tight and moisture proof bags especially in areas of high humidity to prevent mold growth.

 Why market potentials for garri is huge and stable

Every day, Nigerians and some Africans consume garri product. The market value of garri runs into billions of dollars every year. It is believed in Nigeria that each family pays about N500 for a 5liter bucket of garri every week.

WORM FARMING  BUSINESS (Vermiculture)

Worm farming is the easiest way of turning fruits and vegetable scraps into a great potting soil or soil amendment for your house plants or garden. In fact, this is a business that most people are not even aware of. Do you know that worms have an important role to play in maintaining soil fertility? Well, know it today that worm farming has a great market value. Worm farming is specifically vital and useful for people who will like to compost their food scraps but do not have vacant space for backyard compost bin.

PLANTING FLUTED PUMPKIN. (Telfairia occidentalis) (UGU/ROKO)

Ugu or Iroko is a very nourishing Vegetable, it is blood tonic so to say it can totally be planted in commercial quantity to make reasonable amount of money but most people are still ignorant of this fact. A powerful secret is to let it grow naturally with a product called super grow which has properties that blend naturally with the soil, few drops of it does wonders.

 UGU CULTIVATION

Ugu, commonly called fluted pumpkin is a vegetable which belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceous. It is a crop of commercial importance grown in West Africa countries like Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra leone, being the major producers. It is called Ugu in Igbo Land, Iroko in Yoruba land and Umeke in Edo land of Nigeria respectively. It is cultivated by seed in Southern and Eastern part of Nigeria where it is majorly produced. The seed is planted one foot apart by turning the exposed part of the seed upward and the other side in the soil. It does not necessarily need fertilizer application but cow dung mixture with water can also be used by spreading it round each seed. Ugu needs air, enough space and enough water. Preferably, it should be planted near water source, edge of the river or irrigation because the soil in such area is fertile and it is easier for farmers to channel water from the river to the beds where the fluted pumpkins are growing. It is also a crop that should be grown in sunlight spot. In Igbo land (Eastern part of Nigeria), it is one of their main internal trade. Ugu seed; can be sourced from any local market, it germinates after ten days and can be harvested from 6 weeks or above and also every 2-4 weeks. it has different species but serve same purpose.

 MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PUMPKIN LEAF

Macro nutrients

Leaf                 stem                             whole stem

Calcium                                               6.8%                12.0%                        7.5%

Phosphorus                                      8.1%                 7.0%                             5.9%

Magnesium                                       4.0%                 4.8%                             4.1%

Potassium                                          29.8%              40.8%                          39.9%

Micro minerals

Iron                                                      510.9%             251.7%                        357%

Manganese                                      45.4%               21.3%                          56.5%

Copper                                                17.4%               17.7%                          17.1%

Zinc                                                       90.4%                53.6%                          56.1%

IMPORTANCE OF UGU.

Some of the importance of ugu include the following:

  • It generates appreciable cash income to a small scale farmer and can also yield in large scale even as exportable items when dried.
  • It is a tropical vine grown mainly for the leaves which constitute an important component of the diet of many people in West African countries.
  • It is important for its edible seeds which is rich in protein and fat and can be eaten as whole by boiling or made into fermented porridges.
  • The leaves are rich source of protein, oil, vitamins, minerals, which nourishes, protects and heals the body. Due to the richness of the leaves in iron, it is used to cure anemia.
  • The seeds are potentially valuable as a high protein for human food and animal feed.
  • It is used as herbal preparation for the treatment of convulsion and malaria.
  • It can be used as an ornamental plant.

 DISEASES THAT AFFECT UGU (PUMPKIN) AND THE CONTROL

Some of the diseases that affect the cultivation of ugu (pumpkin) and their control include the following:

  1. Anthracnose caused by colleotricum lagenarium: It can be controlled by crop rotation and the use of resistant cultivars.
  2. Angular leaf spot caused by pseudomonas lachrymose: It can be controlled with the use of copper-containing fungicides, although, high application could cause injury to the plant.
  3. Downy mildew caused by pseudoperonospora cubensis: It can be controlled with the use of resistant cultivars and if fungicides are to be used, they must be applied with high pressure sprayers to assume complete coverage of foliage undersides. Good air drainage and growing fields isolated from earlier plantings will lessen the disease severity. Also rotation and reduced planting density to promote more open canopies should be considered in areas with high incidence of this disease.

CONSTRAINTS ASSOCIATED WITH CULTIVATION OF UGU (PUMPKIN)

Just like every other endeavor has constraints, precautions need to be taken over these few constraints.

  • It will not yield good produce if not supplied with adequate water
  • The price is inflated during the dry season as a result of stress undergone by the farmers for it to strive well during the dry season.
  • The root part is known to be a potent human poison and so should not be consumed.
  • The sex of fluted pumpkins is difficult to recognize until after flowering which take about four months after planting but this particular point does not affect cultivation as such; all it takes is to be very sure of the seed. Some species bear flamboyant leaves which are better.
  • Any serious investor in this business ought to have stable source of water close to the farm for utmost maximization of income. You will always be in the boom of sales by alternate cultivation. Just a month interval; the produce is ready for sell.

 PRODUCING VEGETABLE OIL

Oil with saturated fat contains high level of bad cholesterol which is very hazardous to human health. It contains high level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) which can form plague to block the functioning of human heart and blood vessels, many products contain LDL properties but the commonest among them is the one popularly known as groundnut oil in the market today. All that glitters is not gold. There are many brands of oil in the market which is not good for consumption, these products are waxy in nature, congeals under cool temperature. There are ones that can clots, block or lower the arteries, leading to discomfort, chest pain, mini stroke as well as main stroke, they are better used for soap making. You must be conscious of what you eat these days in other to attain a healthy living which is the yardstick to a functional lifestyle. A sick heart cannot be up and doing and as such, it is necessary to acquire the skills to produce good vegetable oil right inside your kitchen. It can also be produced manually for commercial purposes. Healthy vegetable oil contains high density lipoprotein (LDL). It works in opposite direction with (LDL) saturated oil. Vegetable oil has 2 major benefits which is healthy living and money making.

GENERAL CHARATERISTICS OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL

It contains no saturated fat, i.e. it is not waxy in nature, it does not congeal and it remains the same under any temperature. This type of oil can be manufactured from a number of plant seeds e.g. Peanut, soya bean, sesame seed, cotton seed, olive seed, sun flower seed, melon seed, avocado, coconut etc. some are not cultivated in Nigeria.

 GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) OIL.

No part of groundnut is a waste. It contains 40-50% fat and 24-35% proteins. The oil is expelled/pressed from it and the residue is referred to as cake used for animal feed. Processing of this produce into livestock feed is another industry on its own which one can also exploit. Entrepreneurs who are into livestock farming know the importance of it too well. The cake is sold for N6,000 – N6,500 per 50kg and higher when it is scarce in the market. The composition of groundnut oil varies depending on the growing area with oil from Senegal having high levels of monounsaturates.

Peanut oil is even healthier than olive oil because of its higher smoking point. Peanut oil is one of the less fat containing vegetable oils. It can be substituted with soy oil or olive oil. The smoking point of olive oil is 190 degrees Celsius whereas that of peanut oil is 225 degrees Celsius.

 USES OF GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) OIL

Groundnut (Peanut) is used in cooking as well as for non-edible commercial purposes. It is available in various forms, such as unrefined, refined, double refined, roasted varieties and could be pressed. It is a very healthy medium for cooking oil. Peanut oil is a popular medium of cooking oil due to its health benefits. Apart from being used in cooking, this oil finds its purpose in many other ways of human life. Care needs to be taken while buying this oil because sometimes it is also mixed with other cheap oils in the market.

 MEDICINAL USES OF GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) OIL

  • Patients with Arthritis are prescribed to massage the joints with this oil.
  • Medicated care products use groundnut (peanut) oil in their composition.
  • It is consumed as medicinal remedy while going through loss of appetite.
  • It cures constipation if applied on the rectum.

General HEALTH BENEFITS OF Groundnut (PEANUT) OIL

Original peanut oil does not only add little wonder to the taste buds but it is also beneficial to health.

  • It is comparatively quite low in saturated fats.
  • This oil has no bad cholesterol.
  • It contains majority essential fatty acids so it is very healthy.
  • It is a brilliant source of plant sterols. These phyto-sterols curb the cholesterol absorption, in turn lowering the level of bad cholesterol.
  • The oil has high calories
  • The high content of healthy fatty acids in this oil decreases bad cholesterol from the blood and increases good cholesterol in it.
  • The monosaturated fatty acids present in this oil helps in preventing coronary artery ailments.
  • Consumption of this oil also prevents the risk of having stroke.
  • This oil has resveratrol. This is an anti-oxidant property which helps in prevention of cancer.
  • Properties of this oil also protects against degenerative nerve disorders.
  • The oil prevents Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Properties of this oil also offers protection against fungal and viral infections.
  • Resveratrol present in this oil increases creation of vasodilator hormone and thus alters molecular mechanism inside the blood vessels.
  • Groundnut (Peanut) oil is rich in vitamin E thus containing lots of anti-oxidants
  • Properties of this oil protects the skin and other cell membranes from Oxygen and free radicals that are harmful to the body.
  • Consumption of this oil cures decreasing appetite.
  • It cures arthritis pain when massaged on joints.
  • Applying this oil on the rectum cures constipation.
  • Since the smoke point of this oil is at very high temperature thus even the deep fried foods in this oil retains much less oil amount, making the overall oil consumption much lesser than other oils.
  • Scalp crusting, dry skin and scaling can be treated by massaging peanut oil on the skin.

DESCRIPTION:

The nutrition and the benefits of groundnut (peanut) oil are not only healthy but also tasty.

Color – it is amber yellow, colored.

Density – it is mildly thick but without the sticky factor.

Taste – it has a sweet, nutty flavor of its own, owing to its origin.

Smell – it oozes a sweetish earthy fragrance.

SHELF LIFE:

  • Groundnut (Peanut) oil usually has a shelf life of 6 months, even when it is not properly taken care of but it can last up to 9 to 12 months if the storage condition is under good care.

 OTHER USES:

  • This oil is used as a biodiesel.
  • Peanut oil is mixed with many dyes to make the consistency thicker and used on many bases.
  • Apart from medicated personal care products even many of the general beauty care products are based on this oil.
  • The acids present in this oil can replace these ones that are used in nitroglycerin formulation. Thus under lab conditions the extracts of this oil can be used as explosives.
  • The oil can be used in making grease.

 THE TPYPICAL COMPOSITION OF GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) OIL IS:

  •    Monounsaturates 48
  •    Polyunsaturates 34
  •    Saturates 18

 Food allergies are caused by the protein components of food. Edible oils and fats should undergo extensive refining processing which removes virtually all protein from the oil. It is always thought unlikely that refined groundnut oil could be allergenic and this has been scientifically tested. Research has shown that refined groundnut oil would not cause reactions for the overwhelming majority of peanut allergic individuals and if any reaction did occur, it would be mild. As predicted, the research did show, however, that unrefined oil could cause a reaction in some people, so should be avoided by those with peanut allergy.

MANUAL PRODUCTION/EXTRACTION OF GROUNDNUT OIL

Groundnut (Peanut) oil can be made at home. All it requires is to follow this simple and correct procedure.

  • Heat 1kg of sand in a pot
  • Pour 1 painter bucket (4kg) of groundnut (Kampala specie) as in the case of Nigeria the one with strip designs on it and fry it half done.
  • Separate the half done groundnut from sand.
  • Peel off the outer layer
  • Grind to paste with grinding machine adding 10 worth dried pepper if desired. pepper only adds taste to the cake (kuli kuli) but turns the color of the oil to red.
  • Get a pot, pour the grinded paste and add 2 teaspoonful of salt to the paste.
  • Wash your hands and kneed the paste as you gradually add water. One sizable tea cup of water will be ok but do not pour all at once.
  • Continue to kneed and add water sparingly till oil begins to ooze.
  • Pour oil in separate container as it oozes. Continue this process till the oil seems to finish.
  • Mold the residue (cake) into desired shapes and fry with same oil under reduced temperature. The remnant oil which could not be pressed out will expel as the frying goes on.
  • Allow it to brown then bring down the oil; allow it to get cold; then package the two products as desired. It is ready for use or sale.