Category Archives: Business

Top 10 Tips On Building A Sustainable Business In Nigeria

Top 10 Tips On Building A Sustainable Business In Nigeria

Have you ever ask yourself why most business enterprises in Nigeria hardly survive beyond the first year in business? Running a business in Nigeria is no stroll in the park. From challenges with infrastructure to getting access to needed finance to finding the right staff, there is so much to contend with. This article is focused on the top 10 tips on building a sustainable business in Nigeria which will facilitate the success of your business.

For a business to be successful, it depends greatly on the ability of the enterprise to accomplish its key performance indicator in a sustainable manner. It is expedient that the Government should create a friendly and enabling environment that would be conducive for both business organizations in Nigeria and investors for sustainability and growth of the economy.

Top 10 Tips On Building a Sustainable Business In Nigeria

Here are the Top 10 Tips On Building a Sustainable Business In Nigeria:

  1. Create a business-friendly and enabling environment

A business doesn’t function in a vacuum. Regularly, the business functions in a multidimensional environment. The environment itself is dependent upon a huge level of progress. The alliance among business and its surroundings is certainly one of mutuality that is, the environment brings difficulty to the business while the business, thus, influences some aspect of its environment.

The business environment can be seen as the combination of every single environmental condition and impact that is capable of influencing or affecting business exercises. The business environment involves cultural, social-political, and financial factors or situations that are capable of influencing the life, development, and growth of business outfits or enterprise.

       2. People are the doorway to success

People are the doorway that leads to a sustainable business. Any business that is not people considerate, does not have a lasting future. Whatever business you are doing that is not first driven by a passion for delivering satisfaction to people can not last. One of the largest and fast-growing businesses in Nigeria today is the multilevel marketing or networking business. This business thrives on giving value to people through the creation of a reward system and cycle.

For instance, having the right keys does not guarantee automatic entry into a house, the right key must be deployed on the right door before access can be truly granted. The world has changed drastically from the industrial economy which relies so much on individual production ability. It doesn’t matter the number of skills you possess, without the possession of people relationship skills, the capacity for your business to grow remains very slim. People as the doorway to success remained sacrosanct in other to sustain your business. Therefore, what you do with people determines if your business will succeed or not.

     3. Have a good Management policy

The ability of the business to gain sustainability successfully depends on a good management policy that should be based on solid and sound principles. It represents a commitment demonstrated by top management that moves beyond compliance and efficiency to avoid risks and minimize costs. First of all, for a business enterprise to be sustained it needs to mature and shift up a level from the narrow ego-centric pursuits of market domination. Therefore, a good management policy needs to be adopted to be able to manage both short and long-term perspectives concurrently.

Good management policy is hard to maintain but if it works successfully the benefits are numerous and significant. It enhances the decision-making capacity, the adaptability of your business, supplies a wealth of insight and knowledge. It creates opportunities and an avenue for innovation.

      4. Differentiate Your Business Through  Innovation

Innovation is vital to your business being able to improve its processes, bring new and improved quality products and services to market, increase its efficiency and, most importantly, improve its profitability. However, it adds value to existing products, services, or markets so as to differentiate the business from its competitors and increase the perceived value to the customers and markets. In a level playing field where everyone has access to the same resources and your competitors can do the same thing you do, innovation is an important way to differentiate your business.

Innovation brings increase turnover and improves profitability, reduce costs, build the value of your brand, establish new partnerships and relationships, improve productivity, and be more competitive. You can innovate by introducing new techniques, technology, or working practices by using better processes to give a more consistent quality of the product. Therefore, in other to grow and move your business forward, study your marketplace, and understand how innovation will add value to your customers.

          5. Have a Good Business Plan

In other to build a sustainable business in Nigeria you need to have a well-written business plan. It attracts big investors and provides direction for your business to succeed. A good business plan is vital for the growth and success of your business. It integrates the changes you need to make in your business to maintain and increase your capacity. Writing an outstanding business plan helps you pay attention to the extensive operational and financial plan of your new business and the details, like market planning and budgeting. The procedure will eventually make for an easy startup period and fewer unexpected problems as your business get up and running.

A business plan is paramount if you are thinking of starting a business, it is an essential tool for established businesses. Workable businesses are many; they change and grow. Your original business plan needs to be improved as you set new goals. A quality business plan will also help you see which goals you’ve been able to accomplish, the changes that need to be made, or new directions your business growth should take.

         6. Have a Good Customer Service Relationship

Maintaining a good customer service relationship and customer satisfaction are significant measures in building a sustainable business in Nigeria. Satisfaction, confidence, and willingness to recommend have a strong connection. To grow and sustain your business, you need to understand the drivers for your customers and how they see you are performing against these drivers. You need to understand how to behave as your business expands in other to help your customers achieve their goals. Taking customers for granted is a major killer of businesses in Nigeria. Many business owners in Nigeria forget that people are interconnected, one satisfied customer is a hit and link to several other potential customers.

        7. Have a Long Term Goal

If you are starting a business enterprise you presumably plan to remain in business for a long time. So as to achieve this goal, you must have an idea of what you want your business to achieve. You set up long term goals and endeavor to make them work out as intended. When you’ve met your unique goals, you make new ones. Most of these new goals may be ones you need to meet quickly, while others will take longer. Those are your business long term goals, and they’re significant.

       8. Insist On Quality Product

Quality products help to build your business reputation, increase customer satisfaction, lower risk, and cost of replacing damaged goods. Your business can build a reputation for quality products by picking up accreditation with a renowned quality standard.

A quality product is not just about introducing a product or service that exceeds the standard, but on the other hand, it’s also about the reputation you gain for always delivering a customer experience that is well beyond. Notwithstanding in any business you’re involved in, your customers will not choose you solely based on price, however, based on the quality of your product. Actually, customers will pay more for a product or service that they believe is well-packaged or surpasses the standard. Your customers anticipate that you should deliver quality products.

     9. Welcome Valuable Criticism

To welcome valuable criticism in business can be difficult. However, building a sustainable business depends on your ability to welcome people’s reviews and opinions, you may encounter a customer who wants to show you an improved way of doing business. It may be difficult to manage; all things being equal, no one gets a kick out of the chance to be told they’re wrong. However, valuable criticism gives you an edge over your competitors.

Constructive criticism can direct you away from bad practices and towards great ones. Try to be objective and look at what you’re selling as though it’s not yours. There will be occasions when you feel the criticism is personal and, from time to time, you’ll be correct. People are questionable and it’s important to remember to not be offended by customer’s comments. However, in other to excel in business you must be able to take criticism on board and not respond as though it’s a personal attack. You must be able to make it work to your advantage because it puts you ahead of everyone in your sector and can be used again in the future to get things right, even faster, and keep your reputation intact.

        10. Good Teamwork

Building a successful business enterprise is about more than finding a group of people with a good combination of professional skills. If you have good teamwork it will help you lay the groundwork for a highly effective team that can innovate, cooperate, and communicates in an atmosphere of common trust and respect.

Conclusion

Building a sustainable business enterprise is considered as being central to economic activities and growth worldwide. A sustainable business enterprise is important to the success or failure of your business in Nigeria. Business does not operate in isolation but within a given environment which can shape their performance, survival, and profitability. In order for your business to grow, there is a need for you to be able to adapt as external challenges arise.

Cost Of Registering Your Business In Nigeria

Cost Of Registering Your Business In Nigeria

Do you wish to know what it will cost to register your business enterprise or company in Nigeria? It is important to know that the (CAC) Corporate Affairs Commission is the body responsible for regulating the arrangement and the administration of business enterprises or companies in Nigeria. Each business in the Nigerian public or private is to be appropriately registered with the CAC.

Also Read: How To Register Your Business In Nigeria

The cost of registering your business enterprise or company in Nigeria depends on the kind of business or company. The cost of registering a privately owned business is not quite the same as the cost of registering a publicly owned business enterprise.

Business Organizations In Nigeria

Business organizations in Nigeria are classified into

  1. Business organization: These are profit-oriented and are formed to direct business exercises for the sole aim of making profits to be shared with individual members.
  2. Non-Business Organization: It is important to note that there are other registrable organizations that are true; deed; and action, non-profit organizations. These organizations are shaped not for business or profit-making however for charitable and helpful purposes. Therefore, some tax exceptions are enjoyed by them. Organizations in Nigeria can be business or non-business organizations (profit or non-profit organizations).

CAC Cost Of Registering Your Business In Nigeria

The following are the (CAC) Corporate Affairs Commission fess pertinent to business or company registration in Nigeria:

  1. The applicable fee for reservation of the name of your business enterprise or company = 500 Naira.
  2. The applicable fee for Registration of the private company with a share capital of N1million or less = 10,000 Naira
  3. The applicable fee for Registration of a private company or Increase in Share Capital above N1million and up to 500 million Naira = N5,000 for a sum of 1million Naira share capital or part thereabout.
  4. The applicable fee for Registration of a private company or Increase in share capital above 500 million Naira = 7,500 for a sum of  1million Naira share capital or part thereabout.
  5. The applicable fee for Registration of Public company or Increase in share capital = N20,000 for the first N1million share capital or part thereabout.
  6. The applicable fee for Registration of Public Company or Increase in share capital above N1million and up to 500 million Naira = 10,000 Naira for a sum of 1million Naira share capital or part thereabout.
  7. The applicable fee for Registration of Public Company or increase in share capital above N500million = 15,000 Naira for a sum of  1million Naira share capital or part thereabout.
  8. The applicable fee for Registration of Company not having a share capital = 20,000 Naira
  9. The applicable fee for the filing of a notice of exemption of foreign Companies from Registration = N30,000.
  10. The applicable fee for Re-instatement or Relisting of company name = N25,000.
  11. The Registration fee of charges for private company = N10,000 for a sum of N1 million or part thereabout.
  12. The Registration fee of charges for public company = N20,000 for a sum of 1 Million Naira or part thereabout.
  13. Fee for filing of annual return for a small Company = 2,000 Naira.
  14. Fee for filing of annual return for Private company other than a small  = 3,000 Naira.
  15. Fee for filing of annual return for public company = 5,000 Naira.
  16. Fee for filing of annual return for company Limited by Guarantee = 5,000 Naira.
  17. Fee for Filing of the annual report by foreign companies = 5,000 Naira.
  18. Fee for Filing of a statement in the form of schedule 14 under section 553 = 10,000 Naira.
  19. Fee for Filing of notice of merger or acquisition = 50,000 Naira.
  20. Fee for Filing of special resolution for merger = 20,000 Naira.
  21. The fee for the filing of other documents relating to the merger = 10,000 Naira.
  22. The fee for the filing of the legal declaration of solvency = 5,000 Naira.
  23. The applicable fee for Registration of appointment of liquidator = 10,000 Naira.
  24. The applicable fee for Registration of resolution for winding up = 10,000 Naira.
  25. The fee for the filing of return of final meeting and account of liquidation = 5,000 Naira.
  26. The fee for the filing of a notice of change of company name = 10,000 Naira.
  27. The fee for the filing of a notice of alteration of memorandum and articles of association = 5,000 Naira.
  28. The fee for the filing of a notice of changes in particulars of directors = 2,000 Naira.
  29. The fee for the filing of return of allotment and or a notice of change in shareholding = 2,000 Naira.
  30. The fee for the filing of a notice of change in the registered address = 2,000 Naira.
  31. The fee for the filing of a notice of appointment of the receiver = 10,000 Naira.
  32. The fee for the filing of a notice of discharge of the receiver = 5,000 Naira.
  33. The fee for the filing of a notice of change of signature = 2,000 Naira.
  34. The fee for the filing of a notice of reduction in share capital by public company = 20,000 Naira.
  35. The fee for the filing of a notice of reduction in share capital by private company = 10,000 Naira.
  36. The fee for the filing of a deed of release by a public company = 10,000 Naira.
  37. The fee for the filing of a deed of release by a private company = 5,000 Naira.
  38. The fee for the application for extension of time for holding of the annual general meeting by a public company = 10,000 Naira.
  39. The fee for the application for extension of time for holding of the annual general meeting by a private company = 5,000 Naira.
  40. The fee for Letter of Good Standing = 10,000 Naira.
  41. The fee for other filings (miscellaneous) = 2,000 Naira.
  42. The fee for a certified true copy of the certificate of registration = 10,000 Naira.
  43. The fee for certified true copies of memorandum and articles of association = 3,000 Naira.
  44. The applicable fee for electronic Search = 1,000 Naira for each company.
  45. The fee for manual Search by customers = 2,000 Naira for each company file.
  46. The applicable fee for manual Search Report prepared by officers of the Commission = 5,000 Naira.
  47. The fee for certified true copies of other documents = 2,000 Naira for each document.

Conclusion

Before you register your business or company in Nigeria, you have to check the cost. Although the business enterprise or company registration can be done online, the original copies of the documents used for the registration must be submitted to the CAC before the Certificate of Incorporation can be given to you or your representative.

How To Register Your Business In Nigeria

How To Register Your Business Name In Nigeria

Are you interested in knowing how to register your business enterprise in Nigeria? This Article Contains Step by Step Guide On How To Register Your Business in Nigeria with what it Requires To get A Business Name.

Registration of your business in Nigeria is a simple process as the Corporate Affairs Commission of Nigeria (CAC) has made the procedure very easy by introducing its website with search tools and online portals which reduces the stress and the waste of time going to the CAC office to carry out the processes.

Also Read: How To Start Exportation Business In Nigeria

Nigeria is one in all the first-rate countries in Africa for investment. Why because it’s one of the African’s fastest-developing economies. However, Nigeria is blessed with mineral resources that attract the flow of money to her economy when compared to some of the other African countries. The Nigerian government has introduced good investment policies to attract both foreign and local investors.

To understand how the whole business registration system in Nigeria functions and the way the corporate affairs commission of Nigeria (CAC) online name search works, I encourage you to read the full article as a step by step guide is discussed below.

Benefits Of Registering Your Business In Nigeria

You may be asking what are the benefits of registering my business. Below are the benefits of registering the business in Nigeria

  1. You can open an account with your business or company Name
  2. It gives you legal liability protection
  3. It enables you for a business trip to other countries
  4. You have a reputation with Customers
  5. It gives you proof of ownership
  6. It helps you in getting loans

How To Register Your Business In Nigeria

Here Are Step by Step Guide on How To Register Your Business in Nigeria

 1. Conduct a business name search at (CAC) the Corporate Affairs Commission office

The Nigerian government has introduced a good investment policy to attract both foreign and local investors. The first thing you need to do is to conduct a business name search. The first and most critical step for business enterprise or company registration in Nigeria is the registration of a business name. In this step, you must decide a name for your business and then proceed to (CAC) the Corporate Affairs Commission and check if it is available or if it has already been used.

For the search process, the corporate affairs commission CAC has its website where you can go and check for the availability of your business name. The corporate affairs commission’s (CAC) website has a public search tool which is free of cost. The process of registering your business enterprise name in Nigeria is easy-going once the name has been decided.

Steps to conducting a business name search

  • Go online by visiting www.remita.net/CAC.
  • Go online and click on Pay a Remita/Customer/Biller.
  • Click on the pay once.
  • Who is the beneficiary: Corporate Affairs Commission.
  • Name of service/purpose: Name Search.
  • Amount to pay: #500.
  • Description: Name search.
  • Name of the principal: Type in the name of the business/or company name.
  • The payer’s full name: fill in your name
  • Then Proceed to payment

You can pay at a bank branch, Internet banking, and pay with cards or electronic wallets. In the event that the site search affirms that there is no prior business with a similar name, at that point the incorporator, as the following stage, must lead an official pursuit utilizing the CAC online entry. This costs (500 Naira) and it affirms the name accessibility and grants reservation of business names in Nigeria for 90 days.

2. Choose Your Business Name

This refers to the name or style under which any business enterprise or company is carried on whether in a partnership or as a sole businessman. A business name can be registered as a sole proprietorship or partnership business.

Choosing a name for your business enterprise is very essential because it has to be attractive, selling, and unique. After choosing a suitable name for your business or company it must be directly submitted to the CAC website to check if it is available. You need to be careful when choosing your business name because if you choose a name that has been used by another person or company it may be rejected. So it is important that you choose a unique name for your business enterprise it can be your trademark or brand. Also know that regulations are more limited than in companies but the liability of business owners and partners is generally unlimited. Therefore, the process of completing your business enterprise name registration in Nigeria takes up to one week to complete.

Who Is Eligible To Register A Business Name?

  • Individuals
  • Companies
  • Firm/Partnership
  • Corporations
  • combination of (a-d)

It must be noted that when choosing a name for your business, the names chosen must not include things like National, the name of a state or anything showing affiliation with the government or any other restricted name unless proof of permission from the relevant authorities has been getting; and a prohibited name particularly one that offends public morals

3. Fill the Preliminary Registration Form

After the documents had been properly prepared, you’re required to fill a form through CAC, mentioning all the essential details, and submit it to the CAC again, together with all of the required documents. You can as well have a company secretary for your business enterprise who may act as an accountant or a lawyer and be completely liable for filing the documentation with the CAC after the business enterprise or company is registered.

The Procedure of Documentation is as per the following:

  • All executives must fill the Points of interest of Chief structure (Form CAC 7)
  • One executive must fill the Announcement of Offer Capital and Return of Distribution structure (Form CAC 2)
  • One executive and the Organization Secretary need to fill the Notification of Circumstance/Change of Enlisted Address structure (Form CAC 3)
  • An individual or firm authorized by the CAC can fill the Affirmation of Consistence with the necessities of the company and Allied matters Act (CAMA) structure (Form CAC 4)
  • In any event, 2 chiefs need to fill the structure delegating an Organization Secretary for the business or company

4. Pay the Appropriate Fee 

When all the application structures are presented, the incorporator must pay the appropriate fees meant for registration of business or company in Nigeria. The break down of all the fees that must be paid to the CAC is given beneath:

  • Name Reservation N500
  • Fee for Registration of Business Name N10,000
  • Business Name Registration  N250

How to Change Your Business or Company Name in Nigeria 

On the off chance that you are pondering whether an individual is permitted to change the names of business or company in Nigeria, the appropriate response is yes. Any individual who is eager to change their business or company name must follow a smoothed out procedure, and the issue is arranged. In the event that you are one of them, and searching for a manual to take you through the method of changing your business name in Nigeria then you are on the correct stage. Below are an awesome strategy for changing your business or company name in Nigeria.

Strategy for Changing your Business Name in Nigeria

  • Check for the accessibility of the ideal name with the assistance of the CAC name search, on the off chance that it’s accessible, at that point hold it until the entire documentation and installment strategy is completed.
  • When the CAC Nigeria name search affirms that the ideal name is accessible at that point set up an application expressing the explanations behind the adjustment in the business name alongside the signature of two executives.
  • Express uncommon goals clarifying the ideal change alongside the signature of two executives.
  • When the application is submitted and affirmed, tender the first authentication of consolidation for abrogation purposes.
  • The subsequent stage is to do the installation of filing fees.
  • Check whether the yearly returns are up to date.
  • Get the stamped agreement and articles bearing the new name

Documents Needed for Changing your Business or Company Name in Nigeria

  1. A board decision expressing the endorsement of the name change
  2. 3 duplicates of notice and articles of affiliation utilizing the new business name
  3. The original certificate of consolidation

5. Pick Up Your Business Name Certificate Of Registration

In the wake of finishing the form, paying the necessary fees, and presenting the confirmation/affidavit form, at this point you should hold-up two or three weeks before returning at the (CAC) Corporate Affairs Commission for your business name certification. In the event that everything was fine during the application procedure, at this point you can expect to wait excessively long or have your registration invalidated.

In the wake of getting the certification, you can feel free to start your business. At this point you can consider incorporating your business into a limited liability company (LTD) or public liability company (PLC) as you want. The whole procedure ought not to take a couple of months and you will be prepared to begin a full registered business or company.

Cost of Business Registration in Nigeria

(CAC) the Corporate Affairs Commission is the administrative organization responsible for registering businesses and companies in Nigeria. They likewise control the exercises of businesses and the companies by their constitution. You can click here for more detail on the cost of registering your business in Nigeria.

Conclusion

Registration of business in Nigeria is not difficult as most people perceive. The above steps will help you in registering your business in Nigeria. It is vital to register your business as there are numerous benefits attached to it. If you have any challenge feel free to ask us a question using the comment box below. Remember to share with your friends on Facebook, Twitter, etc.

How To Start Exportation Business In Nigeria

 

How To Start Exportation Business In Nigeria

Do you want to know how to start the exportation business in Nigeria? This Article contains Step By Step Guide On How To Start Exportation Business In Nigeria with Exportable Goods.

 

Nigeria is an unarguably richly endowed country with mineral and agricultural resources that have not been fully harnessed for the benefit of the country and its citizens. These products or resources are spread across every state in the country of Nigeria and present a lucrative opportunity for any brave investor who intends to process them into raw materials or semi-manufactured goods for export business or local consumption.

I, therefore encourage the ambition of selling these products in the export market by following the genuine procedure. As an entrepreneur, I have many opportunities that gave me a versatile knowledge of export business in Nigeria.

Also Read: You Must Know How To Survive In A Financial Desert

Notwithstanding deciding to go into the exportation business is just as important as the kind of business to go into, if not even more important. No one can afford to invest his time, energy and resources on export business yet he sees it not working out. It is quite disheartening.

There is so much information at my disposal as an entrepreneur to show you the different kinds of business you can go into.

Export business is one of such businesses that are lucrative when you are considering the kind of business to go into. One of the great assets of the export business is that it is not limited by a boundary.

It is a type of business that cuts across foreign countries and thus increases your market. So if you are contemplating going into business, you may like to go into exporting.

How To Start Exportation Business In Nigeria

Here Are Step by Step Guide to Starting An Exportation Business in Nigeria

Step #1: Register Your Business Name.

If you have concluded on going into the exportation business, registering the business name is the first thing you should do. It saves you from legal issues when you register for the company name.

Registering a company, in other words, means letting the government know that you’re now a business owner and that your business name is yours.

Moreover, I want you to know that the Corporate Affairs Commission is the official Agency approved by the Company and Allied Matters Act 1990, as stated in section 659 to register businesses in Nigeria. For more details I encourage you to visit the corporate Affairs commission on company registration.

Meanwhile, there are different types of business registration in Nigeria. They include the following;

A: Registration for Private Limited Company (LTD)

B: Public Limited Company (PLC)

C: Company Limited by Guarantee (LTD/GTE)

D: Unlimited Company (ULTD) Incorporated Trustee

The one that is directly connected with small and medium companies in the registration of the business name is Private Limited Company.

Step #2: Look For Products To Export

The exportation business is very lucrative and if well managed can be a successful enterprise. Immediately you register your business name, you are set to start exporting. On the other hand before you do that, you need to take into consideration what exactly you want to export.

If you decide to go into the export business taking a decision is an important stage that you will pass through. It is very easy to decide to go into the export business on the other hand it is more difficult to decide on a particular one to go for.

There are a good number of products one can trade-in but the condition attached to each one differs, therefore it is essential to have an idea of what each requires before one gets involved in it. Or else, it may pose a problem later. The points below will help in getting the products to export. There are so many goods you can export particularly agricultural items. Below is the entire list.

How to take a Decision On What to Export

  • Study the trends: Each business has its trend therefore before you dive into the exportation business try to study the business trends to know the latest if it is something people are interested in and are talking about or something that will sell. When you find out what is trending per time it drives business and it helps businessmen to go into business with complete knowledge of the business. This is what people find out when they conduct a market survey. Moreover, in this dispensation the internet is at our disposal and it will help reduce stress to find out what people are saying.
  • Acknowledge Your Passion: Your passion for doing something you need to do cannot be overemphasized. For instance, when you have a passion to start exportation business in Nigeria it is your passion that will make you be committed to the business. Even when things are tough your passion keeps you moving without regret. Therefore, you may have to acknowledge something or business you have passion for.
  • Check your competitors: It is expedient for you to check your competitor’s because domination in business brings ego, meanwhile, so many competition saps business. You don’t have to trade in a particular product that has many competitors unless you are sure of adding something new to it. However, you have to research your competitors both local and international in other to learn about them and see what you may do differently or how not to copy their mistakes.
  • Make research: Check all the products on the other hand study it carefully in other to learn about them. This might take time but it is better to spend time preparing than the time that would be wasted in correcting the mistake made in wrong preparation. Therefore, make a list of all the possible products you could trade-in and carry out thorough research on each so that you can make more knowledgeable decisions.
  • Know government/customs policy: As a Nigerian who wants to explore the exportation business it is important for you to know about import and export laws provided by the Nigerian export promotion council and the country you would likely want to trade with. The customs laws on each of those goods may as well help you make a knowledgeable decision on the product that is worth trading in.
  • Know your market: You don’t have to know particular buyers and their location. It is important that you find more than one buyer but located in one country at least for a start to see their reaction on the product you want to trade-in.

Step #3: Look for Foreign Buyers of Your Product

You may be wondering In your mind right now how do I look for foreign buyers. You may be asking what is the point of having a product that is not demanded. I will love to encourage you that for your business to survive you need to look for people who would be interested in buying your products. It could be more complicated when you are unable to see the buyers as in the case of local trade. When it comes to international trade, you will have to strategize to get buyers.

  • Go online: In this generation the internet has made life easy and accessible than you would have thought. There is no information that one needs that cannot be found on the internet. All you need to do is to consult different search engines available to find people who will be interested in the products that you are selling. You can also go through e-markets such as Amazon, Alibaba, etc to find the people whose business would need the products that you are selling.
  • Chamber of Commerce: In Nigeria, we have a chamber of commerce also different countries have their Chamber of Commerce, as well as the bilateral Chamber of Commerce. You can gain a lot of knowledge about trade in these countries by visiting them and luckily, they have websites that you can visit for more information.
  • Participate in Trade fairs and Exhibitions: Trade fairs and exhibitions is a medium through which different kind of companies in a particular industry come together to exhibit their products and services. It is well organized for marketing and networking. If you attend some of their exhibitions or seminar, you would have a good idea of particular individuals or companies that would be interested in your product.
  • Register with National Export Boards: You must connect with the (Nigerian Export Promotion Council) NEPC which has the responsibility of promoting the enterprise of Nigerian exporters. It will add a great value to your business when you register with NEPC so that they will register you as a Nigerian exporter and refer buyers to you for inquiry. They as well organize trade seminars to create a good buyer-seller relationship.
  • Buying agents: Many businesses abroad have buying agents who come into the country to help them buy their products instead of them transacting directly with buyers. However, you can make contact with these buying agents and show what you are selling to them.
  • Online Advert: The world has become a global village. therefore from your little corner in Nigeria, you can reach the world with your products. You can run adverts such as Google adverts, Facebook and Instagram adverts to showcase your business to areas and people far beyond your reach.
  • Connect with Industry associations: Some industries have great associations that will help you get a list of companies that may be interested in what you are selling. All you need to do is to connect with them and request a list of their companies and for those that have a website, it is will be easier.
  • Use social media platforms: Social media has developed and it has gone far beyond a platform just to share pictures and catch up with friends. A lot of businesses are expanding through social media platforms. All of them can serve as a medium to connect with buyers. LinkedIn that was built with professionalism in mind and Facebook, in particular, can help you find what you are looking for. Ensure that right from your profile, what you do is clear.

Step #4: Sourcing for Suppliers of Your Product

Sourcing for the suppliers of your products is very important for your business to succeed. The quality of your product is what will make the buyers keep coming to you also you can only determine the quality of your product by the kind of suppliers you get. You need to take the time to find the right suppliers.

  • However, go online and search for the suppliers of whatever product you are looking for. If you have any issues searching on Google. The trick to searching on Google is finding the right keywords, it will help if you use different keywords interchangeably. Moreover, you have to search for directories of manufacturers or adverts to direct your search.
  • Speak to Referral: You may as well find suppliers through referral. You can talk to people who are already in the business to tell you who their suppliers are. You can as well ask around your circle, you may be surprised by the information the people around you will feed you with. You can also ask on the social media platforms, in other to get answers.

Step #5: Decide on the Price of Your Product

After you might have put everything in place, the next step is to start selling your product. But before you do that, you need to decide how much you will be selling your product.

  • For you to be able to arrive at the right price, you need to take a record of all your products as well as the final shipping to the buyers and make calculations of your goods. Ensure not to leave anything out of all you have spent. For example all the export duties or translation costs if you had to employ a translator. Therefore, do not run at a loss.
  • You will have to conduct market research to see what price others are selling, what buyers are willing to pay and as well the rate of demand. Sometimes, the demand may affect your price. A product on high demand will enjoy a higher price than the one that doesn’t have much market demand.
  • You may also have to match the prices of other sellers on the market if you have many competitors. This is because if you sell higher than others, your buyers may walk away considering they have many options.

Step #6: Get a handle on Logistics

As a Nigerian who wants to start the exportation business in Nigeria you need to learn how to ship your goods and all other requirements for stress-free transportation of the goods. The exporter is expected to know how to package and label the product very well, document them properly and ensure that there won’t be any damage. Good numbers of exporters In Nigeria employ the services of freight forwarders to take care of all the logistics.

  • As a result of poor packing a lot of goods have been lost in transit. However, the major problems are usually moisture because of rain or humidity as well due to poor ventilation, breakage as a result of piling up the goods together or when moving them, weight and theft. Therefore, you need to package the goods very well to avoid all these problems. Get the right materials to package your goods in other to avoid moisture, breakage and so that it can carry whatever weight that could be piled on it. And as well avoid labeling with brand or content name to avoid stealing.
  • Even though it is better not to label the products with the brand and content name, it is as well expected to label the goods. The label will be known to be a buyer also in other to make it easy for them to identify the goods. Some of the most important items you need to add label consist of; country of origin (exporter’s country), shipper’s mark, the size of cases also the number of packages (in centimeters and inches), weight marking (in kilograms and pounds), cautionary markings, like this side up or use no hooks (within the language that the country of destination speaks, in English) handling of marks as in international pictorial symbols, the port of entry, as well the labels of hazardous materials and the universal symbols used by the International Maritime Organization.
  • The product you are shipping requires some documentation, which is mostly based on the requirements of both countries.
  • Commercial invoice: The commercial invoice is a bill for the goods that you purchased from the buyer to the seller, which contains basic information about the transaction, like a description of the goods, the correct address of the shipper and the seller, as well as the delivery and payment terms. The invoice is normally the proof of ownership and to get paid, however, some governments use it to evaluate customs duties.
  • Bill of lading: Bills of lading are contracts between the owner of the goods and the carrier (as in case of domestic shipments).
  • Consular invoice: Some nations, like Nigeria require a consular invoice, which is used to control and identify goods. The invoice is purchased from the embassy of the country to which the goods are being shipped and is mostly prepared in the language that the country speaks.
  • Certificate of origin: Certificate of origin is the certificate that indicates the origin of the product. Most nations require it and it can be obtained from the Chamber of Commerce.
  • Inspection certification: Most of the buyers and countries might want a certificate of inspection to know if it is in line with the provisions of the products shipped. Inspection certifications are always carried out by independent testing organizations.
  • The warehouse receipt and Dock receipt. Such receipts show accountability when the export item is conveyed by the domestic carrier to the port of origin and left with the foreign carrier for export.
  • Destination control statement: This statement shows up on the commercial invoice, ocean or air waybill of lading, and as well the SED to alert the carrier and all the foreign parties that the item might be exported to a specific destination.
  • Insurance certificate: The insurance certificate shows the provisions of the insurance.
  • Export packing list: The export packing list shows the details of the material in each package, itemize the type of package if it is a box, crate, drum or carton. It as well shows the individual legal, tare, net, and gross weights and measurements for each of the packages. The forwarding agent or maybe the shipper uses the list to dictate the total shipment weight/volume and as well to check if the right cargo is being shipped. Moreover, customs officials might use the list to check out the cargo. The packing list has to be attached to the outside of a package as indicated.
  • Shipping: The type of shipping is very important. Before you proceed to ship, you need to ask the buyer where they want the products to be shipped to. Also, you have to consider other factors, such as cost, delivery schedule and availability of the destination to the buyer before considering if to ship through the air or the ocean. However, booking ahead of time is mostly safer.
  • Get Your Insurance Covered: As a result of the damage that could come with the goods, it is safe to ensure the product. The local insurance may not cover the foreign shipment. However, the buyer or seller, depending on the conditions of sale, can apply for insurance with the foreign insurance carrier or you can contact the freight forwarders for more details.

Step #7: Obtain special Licences and Permits For Goods that you are Dealing In

If you are starting an export business newly, you must obtain special licenses and permits for goods that you are dealing with. Because, it is easy for you to ignore the need to obtain special licenses and permits.

Getting licenses and permits is easy but if you fail to do so and as well follow the right procedures from the onset is one of the common mistakes the people that are new in export business make.

  • Licenses are required for 3 reasons:
  • You need to identify your business and ensure you’re accountable for your actions.
  • You need to keep records of your finances for tax purposes.
  • To protect public health and safety from disease.

Step #8: Register with Customs by Completing Form NXP

The form (NXP) is an obligatory legal report to be completed via all exporters for the shipment of consignment outside Nigeria.

According to Nigerian custom service an exporter is expected to complete and register these Form (NXP) through an Authorized Dealer, Merchant bank or any commercial bank of his or her choice.

The aim of completing the Form NXP is to make sure:

  • that goods to be exported outside Nigeria meets the buyer’s expectation hence the goods will be presented for an inspection conducted by appropriate Government agencies.
  • The only goods that have to meet the buyer’s order have been shipped – the Nigeria Customs Service on shipment will rightly certify a copy of the form.
  • that proceeds (payment) because the exporter is rightly repatriated within 90 days of shipment of goods and wired to his Domestic Account maintained with the Authorized Dealer that proceeds or registered the Form NXP.

Step #9: Check If Your Products are not on the Prohibited Goods List

You can export different kinds of goods outside Nigeria, however, some things aren’t allowed to export and import. No matter where you are exporting them to there is prohibited goods that cannot be exported. Therefore, you need to check if your products are on the prohibited list.

Here is a list of prohibited goods in Nigeria, which includes:

1. Maize

2. Wildlife animals classified as endangered species and their products

3. Timber (rough or sawn)

4. Scrap metals

5. Artifacts and Antiquities

6. Unprocessed rubber latex and rubber lumps

7. Raw hides and skin

8. All goods imported

The following steps above will guide you on how to start exportation business in Nigeria but let us look at another aspect of the exportation business like how profitable the business is in Nigeria

How Profitable is Exportation Business in Nigeria

The exportation business is very lucrative in Nigeria. A good number of people focus on importation without knowing how profitable exportation is. Many people call it “goldmine.” The exportation business expands your market.

Now when you sell locally in the market, you are limited to the customers in your country but the exportation business takes you globally and increases your market. It as well reduces your competitors and also increases the customers that you will have shared with others. So many customers attract more sales and more sales bring more profit for you. Therefore, in every way, you will do much better.

Statistics have it that the exportation business in Nigeria worth over $900 million alone.

Here Is a List of some popular Exportable Goods In Nigeria 

1. Shea nut or Shea Butter

2. Rice husk

3. Dried Split Ginger

4. Garlic

5. Palm Oil

6. Cassava Flour

7. Vegetables

8. Zobo Leaves

9. Garri

10. Dried Bitter Leaf

11. Ogbono Seeds

12. Bitter Kola

13. Ugu Leaves

14. Smoke Fish

15. Snail

16. Honey

17. Hibiscus Flower

18. Sesame

19. Melon

20. Cashew Nuts

21. Cocoa

22. Pepper

23. Groundnut

24. Plantain

25. Moringa Seed

26. Tiger Nuts

27. Crayfish

28. Bread Fruit

29. Walnut

30. Palm Fruit

31. Charcoal 

32. Edible Local Chalk (Nzu)

33. Kola Nut

34. Fabrics

Shea Butter Export Business In Nigeria

Shea butter is fat that is gleaned from the nuts of the shea tree. It is solid at hot weather and has an off-white or ivory color. Shea trees are locally found in Nigeria, and maximum shea butter still comes from Nigeria.

Over 100 various types of agricultural products are grown in the country. And profitable as they might appear, one of the most globally demanded agricultural products which are grown in vast volumes in Nigeria is Shea Butter.

Foreign buyers all over the globe are always looking to purchase Shea Butter from Nigeria because of its price, abundance, and quality. Therefore, the high demand for this product in Nigeria by international buyers makes going into the export of Shea Butter from Nigeria to some countries around the world a lucrative export business to venture into.

Food Export Business in Nigeria

I want you to know that the food exportation business in Nigeria is very lucrative because of the high demand for African food abroad. If you know any Nigerian who lives in a foreign country or has been traveling to a foreign country, you will see how they load their luggage with different kinds of foodstuffs because they understand how expensive and scarce it is. Therefore, It is a good business decision to go into this untapped business area.

Here Are The Functions Of The Nigeria Export Commission (NEPC) In Exportation Business in Nigeria

(The Nigerian Export Promotion Council) NEPC is one of the government agencies that are responsible for rendering different services in other to make export trade easy. Nigeria focused on crude oil for many years and did not look at other areas.

NEPC was designed to help entrepreneurs who intend to diversify into exportation. They as well provide lists of products that can be exported. If you want to start an export business you need to visit their website to get the list of goods that may be exported to make your choice. Therefore, if you register with NECP you may access the grants that the government gives in other to help exporters. Also, they might assist you with concrete information on where to get loans for your business.

Also Read: Being Industrious Has Its Rewards

Conclusion

Many are under living their potential and underplaying their roles in life because they are yet to access the requisite knowledge on how to start the export business in Nigeria, but with this guide you have all the necessary information you need to start exporting.

Therefore, starting the exportation business in Nigeria have its challenges but you have seen that it is accessible if you are diligent enough to glean the right information and process it. 

Most Lucrative Agriculture Business you can Start-Up with Small Capital

Nigeria economic recovery programs have necessitated a radical shift from total dependence on government for job/oil boom to self-employment. One of the attractive areas for self-employment is agriculture. Agriculture is the science, art or occupation concerned with cultivating land, growing crops, breeding and raising livestock; and farming.

Most Lucrative Agriculture Business In Nigeria

Do you know that Agriculture businesses are the most lucrative in the entire world?  Apart from the low-cost of start up and running business under this sector, it usually turns out huge profit of up to 100%. One can start Agriculture business with little or no training. You did not need a special degree though you may need to spend some time learning about the intricacies involved just as in other matters. With the increase in unemployment, young people are now embracing agriculture which is erstwhile considered a dirty business reserved only for the poor. This article highlights some lucrative agricultural business in that even young people can go into to generate income within a very short period.

 Most Lucrative Agricultural Business with Small Capital Start-up

There are lots of lucrative agricultural business but in this article, we shall examine the following:

 SNAIL FARMING (Heliculture)

What is snail? Snail is a land livestock popularly known as congomeat; Also as Ejuna in the Eastern part of Nigeria in West Africa. There are many species of snail but we are going to look at the species that are most suitable for farming.

TYPES OF SNAIL 

  • Garden Snail 
  • Burgundy Snail
  • Decollate Snail 
  • Neverita didyma
  • Monachoides Vicinus

It is the family of Achatinoidea but the ones known as Achatina achatina (giant West African snail) and Achachatina marginata is the most desirable types for farming. It is also known as giant Ghana African snail, giant tiger land snail, and gigantocochlea. Although, all snails in this family may be profitable for breeding but the aforementioned two can be found in Nigeria and Africa at large. You must consider accessibility advantage. Achatina achatina are the largest land snails in the world and are widely sought after species, due to their sizes. They are more difficult to breed than other African snails but have longer life span up to 10 years. Snail farming means to rear snail in a secluded place in small or large scale.

Snail farming is one of the most neglected but yet one of the profitable livestock farm business. It provides one of the finest opportunities to make good money within a very short time. This farm is yet to be exploited due to lack of awareness. Virtually every part of snail is of vital use, both in food, pharmaceutical industries, fishery and in cosmetology. You can keep your present job and still run it on a part time basis.

 REPRODUCTION

Sexual maturity in snail is attained after six months and snails can live as long as 5-10 years. Snail is a hermaphrodite; containing both male and female sex organs. Each snail has two sets of sex organs; one with a penis testes and sperm and the other with ovaries eggs and oviduct and a punch or receptacle for staring sperm of another snail. However, self-fertilization is not common.  Snails copulate in pairs. Snails lay two to three weeks after mating and their reproduction is very rapid.

ACHATINA (achatina)

Achatina is highly prolific being able to lay between 100 to 400 eggs in a single batch of 2-3 per year. It is now possible to produce 1,000,000 snails worth more than N5million twice a year.

During favorable condition, a single snail is capable of laying up to three batches of eggs in one year. Incubation period last between 15 to 30 days depending on the prevailing weather condition and environmental factors. Hatching takes about 12-30 days and the young ones that emerge are tiny with transparent shells. Snail farming is indeed a gem in the livestock business; take advantage of this opportunity and be among the forerunners in this unbelievable venture.

Due to its nutritional value, snail has become a very good delicacy. Snail meat is very rich in calcium, protein, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium and vitamins. It is popular among weight watchers because it is extremely low in calories and fat. Snail meat is beneficial to people suffering from cardiovascular diseases, cancer and people trying to recover from injury. Snail farming is not capital and management intensive. The facts are readily available and you can even produce it yourself as they feed on waste from farm produce.

ENVIRONMENT/SOIL/LOCATION

Snails are not reared on concrete floor. The floor of snailery must be made up of balanced soil. It must be protected from the wind by planting either banana or plantain around the farm. The best soil is sandy-loamy soil that has low water retention, avoid using clay because the place does not have to be waterlogged, acidic soil is equally not advisable. Our climate is one of the best in snail breeding. Use barbed wire fence around the pen to protect them from predators and pests. Snail are known to escape from enclosures that are not properly protected or covered. It therefore becomes necessary that snail houses should be protected to prevent the snail from escaping and free from predator. Protect them from pests like ants, termites and bigger predators like snakes and rats. For small scale, a patch of fence protected ground and shelter from wind or covered box could be made.

GETTING THE SNAIL

The best place to source for your initial stock is in the bushes. Snails gotten directly from their natural habitat are in the best condition because they have not been exposed to sunlight which would dehydrate them. Alternatively, buy the snail eggs from the market and cover them up with a plastic or with a wet sand in it and leave them to hatch into baby snail. This takes up to 21-28days. Another simple technique is to clear a little portion in a bush during rainy season and sprinkle fruit like pineapple, paw-paw and banana by 5 o’clock in the evening, then go back at about 7 or 8 pm; you will get snail suitable for rearing. Repeat the process till you get enough. You can also buy from people who have expertise in breeding them at this stage. They are of different species but Achatina is the most recommended because of its high reproductive capacities. It can lay up to 500 eggs at once and lays 3 times a year.

 NURSERY

Nursery is a structure specifically designed for raising snails in their juvenile stage to allow optimum growth and to provide a safe environment for the young snails when they are most vulnerable. In commercial snail production, after few weeks, the young snails are separated and kept in what is known as fattening boxes where they are adequately fed to encourage maximum growth. The floor of nursery is soil based before the introduction of the juvenile snails. The treatment involves keeping the soil moist. This treatment helps the soil structure resist washing which allows regular cleaning without destroying the crumb structure of the soil; which is beneficial for egg laying. Earth worms are also introduced into the soil of the nursery area to assist aeration and drainage of the soil. The young snails are kept in the nursery for about 6 weeks after which they are moved to a separate pen alongside others of the same size and age for optimum growth. The young snails may eat up the shells of their eggs which gives them the much needed calcium for building their own shell, after which they may also begin to eat the unmatched eggs.

FEEDING

Feed the snails with damaged fruits and leaves like paw-paw, okra, cassava, cabbage, lettuce leaves and so on. You need not to buy them most times, go to where these items are sold and they would be glad to have regular waste bin without stress. Adequate calcium is the best constituents of its shell (up to 98%). A common way to introduce this calcium is to add ground limestone. Calcium may also be set out in a feeding dish so the snails can eat it at will.

HARVESTING

Snails have no stipulated period to harvest. It maturity is checked by the look of the brim. When they are matured enough, the brim should be thicker and harder than other parts of the shell.

START-UP CAPITAL

Snail farming has different funding requirement at various stages of expansion. Snail farming in Nigeria requires small capital and the running cost is very low, hence their feeds are locally sourced. It requires less capital investment of about N100,000 while much profit is being generated in a considerable short period. It has lower risk compared to other livestock farming. Snail is an export commodity; which has value next to gold in oversea countries. It is a foreign exchange income earner of these days. Therefore, there is generic method for calculating the startup expenses. Some expenses can be recurring like that of utility and feeds.

CHALLENGES OF SNAIL FARMING

The challenge in snail rearing is the issue of pests such as; ants, termites, snakes and so on. But the solution is to properly fumigate the environment, fence and top cover the wire mesh. They rarely fall sick. Finally, the produce (snail) is ready for sale after three months if well fed.

 GRASS CUTTER FRAMING

Grass cutter (thryonomys Swinderinus) is a bush rat known as marsh cane-rat. They live in the bush but can be reared in colonies in livestock farming. Grass cutter is extremely suitable for commercial rearing. The main reasons grass cutters are now preferred by some farmers for rearing purpose is because they are easy to house, you don’t buy the type of food given to fish, poultry or pig farming. Research has shown that the meat is medicinal and can be helpful for the control of high blood pressure and also nourishing. It is a profitable venture that will stimulate fast income without having to go to bed with one eye opened like the poultry business. Even with N200,000 you will be able to start. The good thing is that the female grass cutter carries pregnancy for 140-150 days and one female grass cutter can give 5 to 8 litters (young ones) at once. 4 female means at least 5 litters each which gives up to 20 litters. They start giving birth at 8 months when you have purchased the breeding stock at 4 months.

 GETTING STARTED

COLONY

They do not sleep where they eat. This factor must be considered when providing their cage or house. There should be a different sleeping, dinning and playing place, making it three apartments. They are sensitive to good environment. The dimension of the cage should be 18cm in length and 60cm in width and 45cm in height. Build the cage separate for each colony. The production building must be designed to protect the animals from excess temperature and humidity. Their biggest enemies are snakes, solider ants and thieves. To protect them from soldier ants, pour engine oil around their houses at night especially during rainy season. The floor should be over laid with grass to protect their legs from harm while playing.

 BREEDING

Each colony must have a very healthy male grass cutter. Because a healthy male grass cutter has a great stock exchange. While you are selecting the male, it is important that you pay attention to the weight gain. Both the male and female must be carefully selected for breeding.

FEEDING

Grass cutters are herbivorous animal basically sourcing their food from the bush and that’s why they are more comfortable in the bush where their food can easily be found. They love sugar cane, elephant grass, guinea grass, root of coconut palms, sweet potatoes, rice, maize, groundnuts, half ripe plantain, paw- paw, pineapple, palm wine etc. but most farmers use sugar cane mainly for their feeding. The male can also be fattened with either broiler’s starters or finishers feed to help them gain weight within a short period of time. In fact, they feed like human beings but they eat raw food. Grass cutters do not like cold environment. Environment suitable for human beings is suitable for them too.

WEANING TIME:

The kids can be weaned and separated from the mother between 4 to 8 months and they mate between the age of 7-8 months.

THE MARKET VALUE

Grass cutter or bush meat is the most desirable in the market. Big restaurants use it to prepare delicacies that is costly. However, a fully matured grass cutter has been found to be not less than N4,500 naira in the market.

 QUAIL FARMING

Quail is a collective name for mid- sized birds. They have different species and provides a healthy low fat white meat. Quail farming is another profitable livestock farming business in agricultural sector. The greater part of the profit in this venture comes from the eggs. It has high demand and can be sold as cheap as N20 each. The egg, though small in nature is more nutritional than the chicken eggs and many practitioners recommend it for treatment of high blood pressure, Asthma anemia, gastric ulcer, liver problem etc. Fertilization can take place in ratio 1 male to 5 females. It has low cost of investment and low labour cost when compared to chicken rearing. Mature chicken daily consumes an average of 150 grams of feed along regular drugs administration but quail only consumes 20-25 grams feeds daily with little or no drugs.

Quail takes about 5-6 weeks to mature to point of lay while chicken takes 20-24 weeks. Startup capital of N200,000 can earn N100,000 monthly. Mature female quail for rearing was sold for N500 each and N300 each if you are to buy 250 mature female quail and 50 mature male quail, it will amount N125,000 and N15,000 respectively. These are the major expenses to cure if the housing is ready, other things like feeds, feeders and drinkers are minor and cheap to overcome. 250 mature female quail can lay 225 eggs daily i.e. 6750 eggs monthly, at N20 each gives N135,000 from egg alone and they lay eggs for a minimum of 18 months.

Finally, secures the cage from cats, snakes and rats while it should also be well ventilated. Dirty environment reduces egg production or cause disease outbreak. Clean it regularly and always make water available, they drink a lot of water.

 PIG FARMING          

Pig is any of the animals in the genusus, within the sundae family of even-toed ungulates. It belongs to the family of Eurasians in African continent. Pig farming is raising and breeding of domestic pigs. It is a branch of animal husbandry. A normal pig will have a big head with long snout this snout is what pig use to dig into the soil in search of food.

Pigs cannot be reared everywhere due to belief of some people for instance pig farming is a taboo is some Northern part of Nigeria because of the religious belief of such areas. There are numerous species of pigs. The young pig known as piglets. A full grown pig is sold for N30,000. Think of growing just one hundred pigs in a year which will fetches you about N3,000,000 Nigeria currency.

 STARTING PIG FARMING

To start pig farming, here is a summary of how to handle the project but still require some practical training.

  • Secure a breeding ground – for good development, pig needs space for adequate feeding pattern and growth. Depending on how you plan to feed your pigs, a plot of land will be good for small scale while you acquire a wider space as you expand. The bigger the breeding ground, the better because it is good to raise pig in pasture by leaving them occasionally to move around in the field when they can find plant to eat and that can only be achieved when you have enough pasture land, but more precaution should be taken as they mature so they do not wonder away.
  • Pen – Construct a pen in a square form to give you the best in your pig management. Concrete pen may be preferable depending on the texture of the soil in your area, as the concrete will alleviate the problem of mud footing that can be caused by the dry or wet floor. It has its adverse effect. It can hold heat during hot weather periods and could result in joint injuries and illness. Try to make your pen as big as possible for expansion and to avoid reconstruction in a short period of time the pen should be divided into four areas for feeding, sleeping, defecating and a bigger space for running around. They love to sleep near each other.
  • Getting the piglets – Consider the health condition of the piglets you want to buy, if possible, the history about the parent pig to determine the number of young pigs they can bear in their life time and how long the specie can live. Note that you will be determined if they have been given appropriate vaccines.
  • Feeding-the quantity of feed and the number of times to feed pigs depends on the species, age, and how much exercise they get due to space. Pigs are expected to eat 1116 (about 4kg) of pig pellets per day. Then after 4 months, 4116 (about 18kg) a day, there should be more lysine amino acids to feed young pigs so that they can grow more muscle tissue.

Note – too much lysine in the diet can be detrimental to growth in female pigs.

Pigs can also be fed with grass, damaged fruits vegetables and other human food. Sludge from vegetable oil (soy) in particular is very nourishing to the piglets.

  • Diseases and sickness: You may not discover this aspect on time in pigs expect you pay attention. It will be best you have a veterinary doctor who does know the symptom of their sickness. Their services are very important because, you will also need to vaccinate them from time to time.

SOME TERMINOLOGIES IN PIGGERY

  • Piglets/shoal – young or baby pigs
  • Gilts – young female pig not yet matured or furrowed.
  • Boar or hog – male pig of breeding age.
  • Barrow castrated – male pig before puberty.
  • Stag – male castrated pig.
  • Sow – breeding female.
  • Pork – the
  • Herd – a group of pigs.
  • Furrowing – when pigs are giving birth
  • Sty – a small pig pen.
  • Pig shed – a larger pig pen.
  • Hog/swine – the whole specie pig.

CASSAVA PROCESSING BUSINESS

Cassava is a woody shrub with an edible root. It was introduced in Africa by Portuguese traders from Brazil in 16th century. It has become a major staple in the world; West Africa in particular. Cassava roots are a good source of energy while the leaves provide protein, vitamins, and minerals. Lots of edible items are manufactured from cassava such as flour, Garri, starch etc.

HOW TO MAKE GARRI, FROM CASSAVA

According to integrated cassava project, Garri is creamy white, granular flour with a slightly sour taste made from fermented, gelatinized fresh cassava. Garri is widely known in Nigeria and other West African countries. It is commonly consumed either being soaked in cold water with sugar, coconut, roasted groundnut, dried fish or boiled cow peal as compliments or as a paste made with hot water and eaten with vegetable source. When properly stored, it has a shelf of six months or more. The overall potential of agro-processing is huge. It can reduce wastage, enhance food security, improve livelihood for low income groups and empower women.

The production of garri in Nigeria is dominated by women. Garri constitute a daily meal of about 150 million people worldwide. It is a popular West African food.

TYPES OF GARRI IN NIGERIA

  • There are different types of garri depending on how it is processed. It is in grain sizes and the region of African where it is produced, it is classified into:
  • Extra fine garri This is where more than 80% of the grain passes through the sieve of less than 350 micro meter aperture.
  • Fine garri grain Here more than 80% of the grain passes through a sieve of 1400 micro meter or less than 20% of weight passes through a sieve of 1000 micro meter.
  • Extra coarse grain garri In this type, not less than 20% of grain is retained on a sieve of 1400 micro meter aperture.
  • Garri can be classified based on fermentation length days and extend as well as whether palm oil is added to make it yellow in color or not.
  • Red garri This is the type of garri commonly found in Mid-Western part of Nigeria. It is also called Bendel garri. It is made exactly the way described above both for the addition of red palm oil after grinding the cassava and the garri is allowed to ferment for 2 to 3 days also. Adding palm oil to garri further helps to reduce the cyanide content and gives it a unique flavor.
  • White garri – same above. Left to ferments for 2 to 3 days as well, but red oil is not added during processing.
  • Igebu garri – this is made same way too but allowed to ferment for 7 days. No palm oil is added. It is also fried to became much crisped. It has characteristics of very sharp tastes and loss starch. Many people from the Western part of Nigeria love this and find it great for soaking.

EQUIPMENT REQUIRED

  1. Weighing balance
  2. Washing machine
  3. Presser
  4. Grater
  5. Granulator
  6. Sieves
  7. Fryer/Rotary drier
  8. Hammer milling machine
  9. Sealer

PROCEDURE

In Africa, garri is traditionally made at home. It is increasingly becoming common to produce garri in commercial quantities using mechanized means. The tubers are harvested, peeled by removing the covering and the white pulp is grinded in a garri grinding machine. Before the advent of machines, the cassava is hand grinded. The grinded produce is then put into a jute sac and the sac is tied. Traditionally, this left to ferment for 3-7 days depending on the type of garri being made, this step is very important as the fermentation process helps to reduce and detoxify the high cyanide content of cassava. The garri filled sacs are stacked on each other and a wooden board placed below and above the sacs. The wooden boards are tied together with the sacs full of the grinded cassava in between. Tension is created by tightening the rope and thus allowing water to run out of the grinded cassava being proceeded.

Usually, in 3 days the grinded cassava would have lost quite some water and become reasonably dried. This step is also being by-passed with the use of machines that compresses and squeeze water out of the grinded cassava. The water is very rich in starch; collected into a

basin and let to sediment. The sediment raw starch is collected and molded to dry as a bye product to other products.

PACKAGE AND STORAGE

The product is hygroscopic and it absorbs moisture from air, and should be packed in air tight and moisture proof bags especially in areas of high humidity to prevent mold growth.

 Why market potentials for garri is huge and stable

Every day, Nigerians and some Africans consume garri product. The market value of garri runs into billions of dollars every year. It is believed in Nigeria that each family pays about N500 for a 5liter bucket of garri every week.

WORM FARMING  BUSINESS (Vermiculture)

Worm farming is the easiest way of turning fruits and vegetable scraps into a great potting soil or soil amendment for your house plants or garden. In fact, this is a business that most people are not even aware of. Do you know that worms have an important role to play in maintaining soil fertility? Well, know it today that worm farming has a great market value. Worm farming is specifically vital and useful for people who will like to compost their food scraps but do not have vacant space for backyard compost bin.

PLANTING FLUTED PUMPKIN. (Telfairia occidentalis) (UGU/ROKO)

Ugu or Iroko is a very nourishing Vegetable, it is blood tonic so to say it can totally be planted in commercial quantity to make reasonable amount of money but most people are still ignorant of this fact. A powerful secret is to let it grow naturally with a product called super grow which has properties that blend naturally with the soil, few drops of it does wonders.

 UGU CULTIVATION

Ugu, commonly called fluted pumpkin is a vegetable which belongs to the family of Cucurbitaceous. It is a crop of commercial importance grown in West Africa countries like Nigeria, Ghana, Sierra leone, being the major producers. It is called Ugu in Igbo Land, Iroko in Yoruba land and Umeke in Edo land of Nigeria respectively. It is cultivated by seed in Southern and Eastern part of Nigeria where it is majorly produced. The seed is planted one foot apart by turning the exposed part of the seed upward and the other side in the soil. It does not necessarily need fertilizer application but cow dung mixture with water can also be used by spreading it round each seed. Ugu needs air, enough space and enough water. Preferably, it should be planted near water source, edge of the river or irrigation because the soil in such area is fertile and it is easier for farmers to channel water from the river to the beds where the fluted pumpkins are growing. It is also a crop that should be grown in sunlight spot. In Igbo land (Eastern part of Nigeria), it is one of their main internal trade. Ugu seed; can be sourced from any local market, it germinates after ten days and can be harvested from 6 weeks or above and also every 2-4 weeks. it has different species but serve same purpose.

 MINERAL COMPOSITION OF PUMPKIN LEAF

Macro nutrients

Leaf                 stem                             whole stem

Calcium                                               6.8%                12.0%                        7.5%

Phosphorus                                      8.1%                 7.0%                             5.9%

Magnesium                                       4.0%                 4.8%                             4.1%

Potassium                                          29.8%              40.8%                          39.9%

Micro minerals

Iron                                                      510.9%             251.7%                        357%

Manganese                                      45.4%               21.3%                          56.5%

Copper                                                17.4%               17.7%                          17.1%

Zinc                                                       90.4%                53.6%                          56.1%

IMPORTANCE OF UGU.

Some of the importance of ugu include the following:

  • It generates appreciable cash income to a small scale farmer and can also yield in large scale even as exportable items when dried.
  • It is a tropical vine grown mainly for the leaves which constitute an important component of the diet of many people in West African countries.
  • It is important for its edible seeds which is rich in protein and fat and can be eaten as whole by boiling or made into fermented porridges.
  • The leaves are rich source of protein, oil, vitamins, minerals, which nourishes, protects and heals the body. Due to the richness of the leaves in iron, it is used to cure anemia.
  • The seeds are potentially valuable as a high protein for human food and animal feed.
  • It is used as herbal preparation for the treatment of convulsion and malaria.
  • It can be used as an ornamental plant.

 DISEASES THAT AFFECT UGU (PUMPKIN) AND THE CONTROL

Some of the diseases that affect the cultivation of ugu (pumpkin) and their control include the following:

  1. Anthracnose caused by colleotricum lagenarium: It can be controlled by crop rotation and the use of resistant cultivars.
  2. Angular leaf spot caused by pseudomonas lachrymose: It can be controlled with the use of copper-containing fungicides, although, high application could cause injury to the plant.
  3. Downy mildew caused by pseudoperonospora cubensis: It can be controlled with the use of resistant cultivars and if fungicides are to be used, they must be applied with high pressure sprayers to assume complete coverage of foliage undersides. Good air drainage and growing fields isolated from earlier plantings will lessen the disease severity. Also rotation and reduced planting density to promote more open canopies should be considered in areas with high incidence of this disease.

CONSTRAINTS ASSOCIATED WITH CULTIVATION OF UGU (PUMPKIN)

Just like every other endeavor has constraints, precautions need to be taken over these few constraints.

  • It will not yield good produce if not supplied with adequate water
  • The price is inflated during the dry season as a result of stress undergone by the farmers for it to strive well during the dry season.
  • The root part is known to be a potent human poison and so should not be consumed.
  • The sex of fluted pumpkins is difficult to recognize until after flowering which take about four months after planting but this particular point does not affect cultivation as such; all it takes is to be very sure of the seed. Some species bear flamboyant leaves which are better.
  • Any serious investor in this business ought to have stable source of water close to the farm for utmost maximization of income. You will always be in the boom of sales by alternate cultivation. Just a month interval; the produce is ready for sell.

 PRODUCING VEGETABLE OIL

Oil with saturated fat contains high level of bad cholesterol which is very hazardous to human health. It contains high level of low density lipoproteins (LDL) which can form plague to block the functioning of human heart and blood vessels, many products contain LDL properties but the commonest among them is the one popularly known as groundnut oil in the market today. All that glitters is not gold. There are many brands of oil in the market which is not good for consumption, these products are waxy in nature, congeals under cool temperature. There are ones that can clots, block or lower the arteries, leading to discomfort, chest pain, mini stroke as well as main stroke, they are better used for soap making. You must be conscious of what you eat these days in other to attain a healthy living which is the yardstick to a functional lifestyle. A sick heart cannot be up and doing and as such, it is necessary to acquire the skills to produce good vegetable oil right inside your kitchen. It can also be produced manually for commercial purposes. Healthy vegetable oil contains high density lipoprotein (LDL). It works in opposite direction with (LDL) saturated oil. Vegetable oil has 2 major benefits which is healthy living and money making.

GENERAL CHARATERISTICS OF EDIBLE VEGETABLE OIL

It contains no saturated fat, i.e. it is not waxy in nature, it does not congeal and it remains the same under any temperature. This type of oil can be manufactured from a number of plant seeds e.g. Peanut, soya bean, sesame seed, cotton seed, olive seed, sun flower seed, melon seed, avocado, coconut etc. some are not cultivated in Nigeria.

 GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) OIL.

No part of groundnut is a waste. It contains 40-50% fat and 24-35% proteins. The oil is expelled/pressed from it and the residue is referred to as cake used for animal feed. Processing of this produce into livestock feed is another industry on its own which one can also exploit. Entrepreneurs who are into livestock farming know the importance of it too well. The cake is sold for N6,000 – N6,500 per 50kg and higher when it is scarce in the market. The composition of groundnut oil varies depending on the growing area with oil from Senegal having high levels of monounsaturates.

Peanut oil is even healthier than olive oil because of its higher smoking point. Peanut oil is one of the less fat containing vegetable oils. It can be substituted with soy oil or olive oil. The smoking point of olive oil is 190 degrees Celsius whereas that of peanut oil is 225 degrees Celsius.

 USES OF GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) OIL

Groundnut (Peanut) is used in cooking as well as for non-edible commercial purposes. It is available in various forms, such as unrefined, refined, double refined, roasted varieties and could be pressed. It is a very healthy medium for cooking oil. Peanut oil is a popular medium of cooking oil due to its health benefits. Apart from being used in cooking, this oil finds its purpose in many other ways of human life. Care needs to be taken while buying this oil because sometimes it is also mixed with other cheap oils in the market.

 MEDICINAL USES OF GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) OIL

  • Patients with Arthritis are prescribed to massage the joints with this oil.
  • Medicated care products use groundnut (peanut) oil in their composition.
  • It is consumed as medicinal remedy while going through loss of appetite.
  • It cures constipation if applied on the rectum.

General HEALTH BENEFITS OF Groundnut (PEANUT) OIL

Original peanut oil does not only add little wonder to the taste buds but it is also beneficial to health.

  • It is comparatively quite low in saturated fats.
  • This oil has no bad cholesterol.
  • It contains majority essential fatty acids so it is very healthy.
  • It is a brilliant source of plant sterols. These phyto-sterols curb the cholesterol absorption, in turn lowering the level of bad cholesterol.
  • The oil has high calories
  • The high content of healthy fatty acids in this oil decreases bad cholesterol from the blood and increases good cholesterol in it.
  • The monosaturated fatty acids present in this oil helps in preventing coronary artery ailments.
  • Consumption of this oil also prevents the risk of having stroke.
  • This oil has resveratrol. This is an anti-oxidant property which helps in prevention of cancer.
  • Properties of this oil also protects against degenerative nerve disorders.
  • The oil prevents Alzheimer’s disease.
  • Properties of this oil also offers protection against fungal and viral infections.
  • Resveratrol present in this oil increases creation of vasodilator hormone and thus alters molecular mechanism inside the blood vessels.
  • Groundnut (Peanut) oil is rich in vitamin E thus containing lots of anti-oxidants
  • Properties of this oil protects the skin and other cell membranes from Oxygen and free radicals that are harmful to the body.
  • Consumption of this oil cures decreasing appetite.
  • It cures arthritis pain when massaged on joints.
  • Applying this oil on the rectum cures constipation.
  • Since the smoke point of this oil is at very high temperature thus even the deep fried foods in this oil retains much less oil amount, making the overall oil consumption much lesser than other oils.
  • Scalp crusting, dry skin and scaling can be treated by massaging peanut oil on the skin.

DESCRIPTION:

The nutrition and the benefits of groundnut (peanut) oil are not only healthy but also tasty.

Color – it is amber yellow, colored.

Density – it is mildly thick but without the sticky factor.

Taste – it has a sweet, nutty flavor of its own, owing to its origin.

Smell – it oozes a sweetish earthy fragrance.

SHELF LIFE:

  • Groundnut (Peanut) oil usually has a shelf life of 6 months, even when it is not properly taken care of but it can last up to 9 to 12 months if the storage condition is under good care.

 OTHER USES:

  • This oil is used as a biodiesel.
  • Peanut oil is mixed with many dyes to make the consistency thicker and used on many bases.
  • Apart from medicated personal care products even many of the general beauty care products are based on this oil.
  • The acids present in this oil can replace these ones that are used in nitroglycerin formulation. Thus under lab conditions the extracts of this oil can be used as explosives.
  • The oil can be used in making grease.

 THE TPYPICAL COMPOSITION OF GROUNDNUT (PEANUT) OIL IS:

  •    Monounsaturates 48
  •    Polyunsaturates 34
  •    Saturates 18

 Food allergies are caused by the protein components of food. Edible oils and fats should undergo extensive refining processing which removes virtually all protein from the oil. It is always thought unlikely that refined groundnut oil could be allergenic and this has been scientifically tested. Research has shown that refined groundnut oil would not cause reactions for the overwhelming majority of peanut allergic individuals and if any reaction did occur, it would be mild. As predicted, the research did show, however, that unrefined oil could cause a reaction in some people, so should be avoided by those with peanut allergy.

MANUAL PRODUCTION/EXTRACTION OF GROUNDNUT OIL

Groundnut (Peanut) oil can be made at home. All it requires is to follow this simple and correct procedure.

  • Heat 1kg of sand in a pot
  • Pour 1 painter bucket (4kg) of groundnut (Kampala specie) as in the case of Nigeria the one with strip designs on it and fry it half done.
  • Separate the half done groundnut from sand.
  • Peel off the outer layer
  • Grind to paste with grinding machine adding 10 worth dried pepper if desired. pepper only adds taste to the cake (kuli kuli) but turns the color of the oil to red.
  • Get a pot, pour the grinded paste and add 2 teaspoonful of salt to the paste.
  • Wash your hands and kneed the paste as you gradually add water. One sizable tea cup of water will be ok but do not pour all at once.
  • Continue to kneed and add water sparingly till oil begins to ooze.
  • Pour oil in separate container as it oozes. Continue this process till the oil seems to finish.
  • Mold the residue (cake) into desired shapes and fry with same oil under reduced temperature. The remnant oil which could not be pressed out will expel as the frying goes on.
  • Allow it to brown then bring down the oil; allow it to get cold; then package the two products as desired. It is ready for use or sale.